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Difference between Java 11 and Java 12

Java 11 Java 12
Features Added:
- New String Methods: isBlank, lines, strip, stripLeading, stripTrailing, and repeat.

- New File Methods: We can use the new readString and writeString static methods from the Files class.

- Collection to an Array: The java.util.Collection interface contains a new default toArray method.

- The Not Predicate Method: A static not method has been added to the Predicate interface. We can use it to negate an existing predicate.

- Local-Variable Syntax for Lambda: Support for using the local variable syntax (var keyword) in lambda parameters.

- HTTP Client: The new HTTP API improves overall performance and provides support for both HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2.

- Nest Based Access Control: A nest of classes in Java implies both the outer/main class and all its nested classes.

- Running Java Files: We don't need to compile the Java source files with javac explicitly anymore. Instead, we can directly run the file using the java command.

- Performance Enhancements: Dynamic Class-File Constants, Improved Aarch64 Intrinsics, A No-Op Garbage Collector, Flight Recorder.
Features Added:
- String Class New Methods: indent method adjusts the indentation of each line, transform method to revert the string.

- File::mismatch Method: New mismatch method in the nio.file.Files utility class. The method is used to compare two files and find the position of the first mismatched byte in their contents.

- Teeing Collector: A new teeing collector as an addition to the Collectors class. It is a composite of two downstream collectors. Every element is processed by both downstream collectors. Then their results are passed to the merge function and transformed into the final result.

- Compact Number Formatting: It's designed to represent a number in a shorter form, based on the patterns provided by a given locale.

- Switch Expressions (Preview): The syntax of switch statement got introduced. New switch statements are not only more compact and readable. They also remove the need for break statements. The code execution will not fall through after the first match.

- Pattern Matching for instanceof (Preview): Earlier if statements together with instanceof, we would have to explicitly typecast the object to access its features, but now we need not to typecast separately after instanceof.

- Shenandoah: A Low-Pause-Time Garbage Collector: It is now experimental garbage collector and not the default GC. It reduces the GC pause times by doing evacuation work simultaneously with the running Java threads.

- Microbenchmark Suite: Around 100 microbenchmark tests added in JDK which will perform continuous performance testing on a JVM.

- Default CDS Archives: The Class Data Sharing (CDS) feature helps reduce the startup time and memory footprint between multiple Java Virtual Machines.

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