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Freshers / Beginner level questions & answers

Ques 1. What is the purpose of ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)?

ARP is used to map a 32-bit IP address to a MAC address on a local network, allowing communication between devices.

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Ques 2. What is the role of a router in a network?

A router connects different networks and directs data between them based on IP addresses. It operates at the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model.

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Ques 3. Explain the purpose of ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).

ICMP is used to send error messages and operational information about network conditions. It is commonly used for troubleshooting.

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Ques 4. Explain the purpose of the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

DHCP dynamically assigns IP addresses to devices on a network, simplifying network configuration and management.

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Ques 5. What is the purpose of the subnet mask in networking?

The subnet mask defines the network and host portions of an IP address. It is used in conjunction with IP addresses for routing and addressing purposes.

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Ques 6. What is the difference between static routing and dynamic routing?

Static routing requires manual configuration of routes, while dynamic routing protocols automatically adapt to changes in the network topology.

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Ques 7. Explain the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex communication.

Half-duplex communication allows data transmission in both directions, but not simultaneously. Full-duplex communication allows simultaneous two-way data transmission.

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Ques 8. What is the purpose of the ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply messages?

ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply messages are used for ping tests to check network connectivity and measure round-trip time.

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Ques 9. What is the purpose of a firewall in network security?

A firewall monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules, preventing unauthorized access.

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Ques 10. What is the purpose of the NTP (Network Time Protocol) in networking?

NTP is used to synchronize the clocks of devices on a network, ensuring accurate timekeeping for various applications and services.

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Ques 11. Explain the purpose of the MAC address in networking.

The MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface card (NIC) to enable communication within a network segment.

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Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

Ques 12. What is the purpose of the OSI model?

The OSI model is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions of a telecommunication or computing system into seven abstraction layers.

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Ques 13. Explain the difference between TCP and UDP.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is connection-oriented, ensuring reliable data delivery. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is connectionless and provides faster, but less reliable, data transmission.

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Ques 14. Explain the concept of VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network).

VLANs logically segment a network into smaller broadcast domains, improving performance and security by isolating traffic.

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Ques 15. What is the difference between a hub, switch, and router?

A hub operates at the physical layer, a switch at the data link layer, and a router at the network layer. Routers connect networks, switches forward data within a network, and hubs broadcast data to all connected devices.

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Ques 16. What is the significance of the 802.1Q standard in networking?

802.1Q is a standard for VLAN tagging in Ethernet networks, allowing the identification of VLAN membership within Ethernet frames.

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Ques 17. Explain the purpose of the TCP three-way handshake.

The TCP three-way handshake is used to establish a reliable connection between two devices. It involves SYN, SYN-ACK, and ACK messages.

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Ques 18. What is the difference between a collision domain and a broadcast domain?

A collision domain is a network segment where collisions can occur, typically in Ethernet networks. A broadcast domain is a logical division of a network, where broadcasts are confined.

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Ques 19. What is the role of a DNS (Domain Name System) server?

DNS translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses, facilitating the routing of data on the Internet.

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Ques 20. Explain the concept of QoS (Quality of Service) in networking.

QoS ensures that network traffic is prioritized based on specific criteria, such as bandwidth, latency, and packet loss, to meet performance requirements.

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Ques 21. What is the purpose of ACLs (Access Control Lists) in routing?

ACLs control traffic flow by permitting or denying packets based on defined rules. They are commonly used for security and traffic filtering.

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Ques 22. Explain the concept of NAT overload (PAT - Port Address Translation).

NAT overload allows multiple private IP addresses to be mapped to a single public IP address by using different port numbers.

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Ques 23. What is the purpose of the HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol)?

HSRP provides high availability by allowing multiple routers to work together in a group, with one router acting as the active router and the others as standby routers.

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Ques 24. What is the purpose of a proxy server in networking?

A proxy server acts as an intermediary between clients and servers, forwarding requests and responses. It is often used for security and caching.

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Ques 25. Explain the concept of network segmentation.

Network segmentation involves dividing a network into smaller, isolated segments to improve security, performance, and manageability.

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Ques 26. What is the purpose of the Hubs and Spokes topology in networking?

Hubs and Spokes topology is a network design where multiple remote sites (spokes) are connected to a central site (hub) for efficient communication.

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Ques 27. What is the purpose of SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)?

SNMP is used for managing and monitoring network devices. It allows the retrieval of information and the configuration of network components.

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Ques 28. Explain the concept of PoE (Power over Ethernet).

PoE allows the transmission of electrical power along with data on Ethernet cabling, simplifying the deployment of network devices.

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Ques 29. What is the purpose of the 802.1X standard in network security?

802.1X provides port-based network access control, requiring authentication before allowing devices to connect to a LAN.

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Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

Ques 30. What is subnetting and why is it used?

Subnetting is the process of dividing a network into sub-networks to improve performance and security. It helps manage IP addresses more efficiently.

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Ques 31. What is NAT (Network Address Translation) and why is it used?

NAT allows multiple devices on a local network to share a single public IP address, providing security and conserving IP addresses.

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Ques 32. What is STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) and why is it important?

STP prevents loops in Ethernet networks by blocking redundant paths. It ensures a loop-free topology and rapid convergence in case of link failures.

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Ques 33. What is OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and how does it work?

OSPF is a link-state routing protocol that calculates the shortest path to a destination based on a SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm.

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Ques 34. What is the purpose of the EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)?

EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that uses a composite metric based on bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load to determine the best path.

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Ques 35. Explain the concept of VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Masking).

VLSM allows the use of different subnet mask lengths in the same IP network, optimizing IP address allocation.

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Ques 36. What is the purpose of the BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?

BGP is an exterior gateway protocol used for routing between different autonomous systems. It is critical for Internet routing.

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Ques 37. Explain the purpose of ARP poisoning in network security.

ARP poisoning is a method used by attackers to associate their MAC address with the IP address of another device, leading to traffic interception.

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Ques 38. Explain the concept of GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation).

GRE is a tunneling protocol that encapsulates a wide variety of network layer protocols inside point-to-point connections.

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Ques 39. Explain the role of the OSI model's Session layer.

The Session layer manages sessions (connections) between applications. It establishes, maintains, and terminates communication sessions.

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Ques 40. Explain the concept of CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing).

CIDR is a method of allocating IP addresses and routing IP packets based on variable-length subnet masking, improving the efficiency of address space usage.

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