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Freshers / Beginner level questions & answers

Ques 1. Define 'Personal Data' according to PDPA.

Personal data refers to any information about an identified or identifiable individual, including but not limited to, name, address, contact details, and identification numbers.

Example:

An email address or a phone number of a person constitutes personal data.

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Ques 2. How can organizations ensure compliance with PDPA?

Organizations can ensure compliance by implementing privacy policies, conducting regular audits, providing staff training, and appointing a Data Protection Officer (DPO).

Example:

A company can conduct periodic internal audits to assess the adherence to privacy policies and make necessary improvements.

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Ques 3. How does PDPA impact marketing practices?

PDPA places restrictions on direct marketing activities and requires organizations to obtain explicit consent before sending marketing communications to individuals.

Example:

Sending promotional emails to customers without obtaining their consent may lead to a violation of PDPA regulations.

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Ques 4. Explain the concept of 'Consent' in the context of PDPA.

Consent is the voluntary and informed agreement of the individual for the collection, use, or disclosure of their personal data. It must be specific, clear, and revocable.

Example:

Before subscribing a user to a newsletter, a website must obtain explicit consent by providing clear information about the content and frequency of the newsletters.

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Ques 5. How can organizations ensure the accuracy of personal data under PDPA?

Organizations must take reasonable steps to ensure the accuracy of personal data, including updating outdated information and allowing individuals to correct inaccuracies.

Example:

A company regularly reviews and updates customer records to ensure that contact details and preferences are accurate.

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Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

Ques 6. What is the purpose of PDPA?

The PDPA aims to safeguard the privacy of individuals by regulating the collection, use, and disclosure of their personal data.

Example:

For example, organizations must obtain explicit consent before collecting and processing personal information.

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Ques 7. What are the rights of individuals under PDPA?

Individuals have the right to access their personal data, request corrections, withdraw consent, and be informed about the purpose of data processing.

Example:

A person can request a copy of their data held by an organization and request corrections if any information is inaccurate.

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Ques 8. How does PDPA address cross-border data transfers?

PDPA regulates cross-border data transfers by requiring data controllers to ensure that the receiving country provides an adequate level of data protection or by obtaining the individual's consent.

Example:

Before transferring customer data to an overseas branch, a company must assess and ensure that the destination country has sufficient data protection laws.

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Ques 9. What is the role of the Data Protection Officer (DPO) under PDPA?

The DPO is responsible for ensuring an organization's compliance with PDPA, advising on data protection impact assessments, and acting as a point of contact for data protection queries.

Example:

A DPO may conduct training sessions for employees to raise awareness about data protection principles and practices.

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Ques 10. Explain the concept of 'Data Minimization' under PDPA.

Data minimization is the principle of collecting only the necessary personal data for the intended purpose and avoiding the collection of excess or irrelevant information.

Example:

When creating a customer registration form, only ask for information essential for providing the requested service, avoiding unnecessary details.

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Ques 11. How does PDPA address the processing of sensitive personal data?

PDPA imposes stricter requirements for processing sensitive personal data, requiring explicit consent and providing additional safeguards to protect such information.

Example:

Health records and religious beliefs are considered sensitive personal data, and explicit consent is required before processing.

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Ques 12. How does PDPA apply to employee data?

PDPA applies to the processing of employee personal data, and organizations must inform employees about the purpose of data collection, obtain consent, and ensure the security of the data.

Example:

An HR department collecting employee information for payroll purposes must obtain explicit consent and ensure the confidentiality of the payroll data.

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Ques 13. Explain the concept of 'Data Portability' under PDPA.

Data portability allows individuals to request and receive their personal data from one organization in a commonly used, machine-readable format, and transfer it to another organization.

Example:

A customer switching to a different service provider can request their personal data from the current provider in a format that allows easy transfer to the new provider.

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Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

Ques 14. Explain the data protection obligations of data controllers under PDPA.

Data controllers are responsible for ensuring that personal data is processed fairly, lawfully, and securely. They must also obtain consent and inform individuals about the purpose of data processing.

Example:

Before collecting customer data for marketing, a company must clearly state the intended use and obtain consent.

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Ques 15. Explain the concept of 'Data Breach' under PDPA.

A data breach is the unauthorized access, disclosure, or acquisition of personal data. PDPA mandates data controllers to report such breaches to the relevant authority and affected individuals.

Example:

If a hacker gains access to a database containing customer information, it is considered a data breach and must be reported.

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Ques 16. Discuss the penalties for non-compliance with PDPA.

Non-compliance with PDPA can result in fines, imprisonment, or both, depending on the severity of the offense. Fines may vary based on the nature of the violation.

Example:

If an organization fails to obtain proper consent before processing personal data, it may face a substantial fine as per PDPA regulations.

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Ques 17. What are the key principles of data protection outlined in PDPA?

PDPA emphasizes principles such as purpose limitation, consent, data accuracy, storage limitation, and accountability to ensure fair and lawful processing of personal data.

Example:

A company must clearly define the purpose of collecting customer data and ensure it is used only for that specific purpose.

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Ques 18. What is the role of a Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) in PDPA?

A DPIA is a risk assessment process that helps organizations identify and mitigate the risks associated with processing personal data, especially in high-risk situations.

Example:

Before implementing a new system that involves the processing of large volumes of personal data, a DPIA must be conducted to assess potential risks and safeguards.

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Ques 19. What measures can organizations take to secure personal data under PDPA?

Organizations can implement encryption, access controls, regular security audits, and employee training to ensure the security of personal data.

Example:

Using encryption to protect customer payment information during online transactions is a security measure aligned with PDPA requirements.

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Ques 20. What is the role of the Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC) in PDPA enforcement?

The PDPC is the regulatory authority responsible for enforcing PDPA in the respective jurisdiction. It issues guidelines, investigates complaints, and takes enforcement actions against non-compliant organizations.

Example:

If a company is reported for a potential PDPA violation, the PDPC may conduct an investigation and take appropriate enforcement actions.

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